Azoospermia means that there is no sperm in the semen of the man, that is, there is no sperm in the semen. Azoospermia is seen in approximately 1% of men, and around 10% to 15% of men with infertility problems. Azoospermia and Oligospermia should not be confused with each other. The reason for this is that sperm, which is seen in small amounts in Oligospermia, can be used by microinjection.
Azoospermia is examined in two groups as obstructive and non-obstructive. Occlusion-related azoospermia may occur after genital infections or surgical interventions due to the incompleteness of a part of the congenital sperm ducts. Azospemia, which is not related to obstruction, may develop due to genetic disorders, congenital retention of the testicles in the upper canals, testicular torsion, some infections and radiation exposure. In azoospermia due to obstruction, some surgical interventions may be tried to open the channels. The only treatment method in patients with unsuccessful surgical methods and in azoospermia that is not related to obstruction is obtaining sperm by surgical means and applying the microinjection method.
In patients with this disease, urology examination, hormone and genetic tests should be performed. It is also recommended to perform some genetic tests before in vitro fertilization. It is recommended that the Y-chromosome should not be treated in patients with deletions in AZfa, AZFb or the entire AZF region, since the probability of finding sperm is low.