They are diagnostic tests that can be applied to couples with recurrent miscarriages or those with morphological defects in sperm. They are evaluated differently in terms of their results. Sperm prepared in the sperm FISH application are marked with fluorescent dye and examined for some chromosomes. The aim of this application is to determine how much of the sperm is faulty in terms of genetic material. If this rate has increased, the selection of appropriate sperm will not be sufficient alone, and the embryos will have to be genetically screened. On the other hand, the TUNEL test examines the integrity of the filamentous structure (chromatin), not the chromosomal disorder of the genetic material in the sperm. Sometimes, even if the sperm is numerically normal, it may show partial or complete degeneration due to various effects, and the presence of such a condition can be determined with this test. If this situation is determined by TUNEL test, negative effects that may cause DNA fragmentation in sperm (breakdown of genetic material) in channels other than testicle should be investigated, and sometimes TESE procedure can be applied when necessary. (Genetic studies are performed.)
Swim-up: It is the obtaining of motile and fast sperm cells by washing the ejaculate (sperm) sample taken from the patient with the appropriate medium. Note: Swim-up method is applied to sperm samples with good motility, number and morphology.
Gradient: It is the procedure performed by filtering and precipitating the ejaculate sperm sample taken from the patient from a special liquid.
Note: The gradient method is applied to sperm samples with impaired number, motility and morphology. In both washing techniques, the aim is to obtain the best quality sperm cells and use them for fertilization by the doctor.